State Institute of Applied Optics


In the wake of the industry development after the Great Patriotic War, the USSR had an urgent need to develop centers of optical industry. In 1955, the Decree of the USSR Government provided for the creation of a new optical center, and at the end of 1956, the Ministry of Defense Industry decided to establish a branch of Vavilov State Optical Institute in Kazan in the territory of Kazan Optical and Mechanical Plant.

Regulation “On the Branch of the State Optical Institute” was approved on April 12, 1957, which is the official date of the beginning of the company’s activity. Already in 1958, the company developed a technology of the connection of optical parts by deep optical contact and grown the first single crystals of lead sulfide.

In 1961, an experimental and production department was established on the basis of the branch.

In 1963, the Branch of the State Optical Institute becomes a party to the USSR National Economy Achievement Exhibition. In the same year, the first diffraction grating with a frequency of 600 lp/mm was produced.

In 1966, the Branch of the State Optical Institute transformed into an independent research institute – State Institute of Applied Optics (“GIPO”). 

In 1968, “GIPO” obtained the first axial synthesized hologram.

In 1971, “GIPO” was appointed the lead organization for the metrological service of measuring tools and simulation of optical-physical parameters of astronomic radiation sources.

In 1971–1975, a photometric complex of devices FKM-71 and FKM-73 was designed and manufactured to study the planet Mars from outer space on the spacecrafts Mars-2, Mars-3, Mars-4, Mars-5; a radiometer IRV-75 to study the planet Venus was designed, manufactured, and installed on the automatic interplanetary stations Venus-9, Venus-10.

In 1975, the company was appointed the parent one in the industry of hologram optics. In 1978, it produced the first prototypes of holographic diffraction gratings.

In 1979–1981, several modifications of the onboard starry globe (BZG-1, BZG-1M, BZG-2) — device of astronauts’ visual astroorientation — were designed and manufactured as part of standard equipment of manned spacecrafts “Soyuz” and “Salute” (1968-1980).

In 1982, on the basis of “GIPO” was created an unparalleled in the USSR complex of instrumentation for the study of the optical properties of the atmosphere in laboratory and field conditions. For the first time, equipment for the metrological assurance of certification and verification of atomic absorption instruments was designed and manufactured in the country.

In 1987, the Institute was appointed the basic enterprise for the measurement of energy and spectral characteristics of astronomical sources of radiation.

In 1991, the Order of the Ministry of Defense Industry transformed the company into the Scientific and Production Association “State Institute of Applied Optics” (NPO “GIPO”). In 1992, an unparalleled flying laboratory for background research on the basis of Yak-42F was created.

In 1997, the Decree of the Government of Russia awarded NPO “GIPO” with the status of the Federal Scientific and Production Center.

In 2001, the Charter of FSUE “NPO “GIPO” was approved, and a certificate of state accreditation of FSUE “NPO “GIPO” as a scientific organization was received.

In 2004, a pilot batch of a parametric range of IR lenses was developed and produced; small-scale manufacturing was launched.

On December 1, 2010, state registration of JSC “Scientific and Production Association “State Institute of Applied Optics” created by the reorganization of FSUE “NPO “GIPO”.

On December 18, 2015, JSC “NPO GIPO” completed the state registration.